The Renaissance at Rynok Square– Italian Masters Recreate Lviv (Lviv: The History of One City Part 33)

The most noticeable aspect of the twelve buildings that line the southern side of Rynok Square can be found above the portal of Rynok 14, where a small sculpture of a winged lion holds a book with the date 1600. This is the Lion of Saint Mark the Evangelist, the Republic of Venice’s Coat of Arms. The building on which the sculpture stands is still known today as the “Venetian House” because it was once the residence of Antonio Massari, a Venetian ambassador to Lviv. The winged lion is symbolic of the Italian influence on the architecture of the city. Italian master craftsmen came to the city throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, fashioning much of Rynok Square and the surrounding walled city’s architectural style. Though many of the buildings on the Square still retain the names of such wealthy ambassadors and merchants as Massari, Roberto Baldinelli and Urbano Ubaldini, the Italian architects who designed so many of these structures are barely known, if at all. The names of these architects are forgotten today, but together they created far Eastern Europe’s greatest Renaissance cityscape. This legacy recreated Lviv, linking it with one of western Europe’s greatest artistic cultures.
The Lion of St. Mark sculpture above the portal to the Venetian House at 14 Rynok Square

The Lion of St. Mark sculpture above the portal to the Venetian House at 14 Rynok Square (Credit: Aeou)

Masters of the Architectural Universe
In almost every respect western Ukraine and Italy are different from one another. They may be on the same continent, but politically, economically and culturally they have little in common. This has not always been true, as can be seen by the Renaissance architecture prominent in Rynok Square and the surrounding streets of the Old Town. The fact that the Renaissance made it this far abroad, to a city on the fringes of Europe shows the power of this artistic and cultural movement. For Italian masters who made their way here, travel would have been unimaginably arduous by modern standards. At the very least, it would have taken several weeks to make the trip to Lviv. What made the Italians want to work in this far off land? The answers were popularity and opportunity. The movement that brought Italian architecture and culture to the farther reaches of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth began in earnest when Bona Sforza, a member of the powerful ruling family of the Duchy of Milan, married King Sigismund I the Old in 1518. Italian and Italian-Swiss architects were soon invited to recreate, rebuild or fortify towns throughout the Commonwealth.

For Lviv this Italian connection happened at a fortuitous moment. In 1527 the city was largely ruined by a cataclysmic fire. With its Gothic architecture reduced to ashes, Lviv would have to be rebuilt. Fortunately, plenty of Italians were willing to offer their services. In return they were given citizenship. One of the first Renaissance style buildings constructed by an Italian master architect, Peter of Lugano, was the Dormition Church. Completed in 1559, it was unfortunately destroyed by a fire 12 years later.  This turned out to be a minor setback as Italian architects went about constructing new townhouses, sacral edifices and redesigning fortifications. In 1589, the same year that the house at 14 Rynok was being completed, the Italian military engineer Bernardo Mornado consulted with the city on improvements to its existing fortifications, including the bastion systems. By this time, the Italians were firmly ensconced in the city’s professional life. They set up guilds and trade associations which protected their rights. Much of their work came from projects commissioned by wealthy private citizens, especially in Rynok Square.

Massari Mansion at 24 Rynok Square

Massari Mansion at 24 Rynok Square in Lviv (Credit: Aeou)

Renaissance Men – Italian Masters Recreate the Cityscape
The two most important Italian architects in Lviv’s reconstruction were Peter Barbon and Paulo Romano. Barbon was the elder in this relationship with Romano acting as his younger colleague. Barbon’s greatest work, the Korniakt Tower, has been called the best Renaissance tower in all of the Polish lands. Romano led the construction of the adjacent Dormition Church, where he integrated Renaissance elements with traditional Ukrainian Orthodox sacral architecture. Romano also designed the Church of St. Andrew (Bernadine Church) and went on to do consulting work on the city’s fortifications. Both men excelled in creating Renaissance style private residences, several of which are among the most famous buildings in Rynok Square today. These include the Korniakt Palace at Rynok 6 designed by Barbon and a second house for Antonio Massari designed by Romano at Rynok 24.

Another palace worthy of mention can be found just a few doors down from the Venetian House. This is the former Gutteter Palace at Rynok 18. Many of the palace’s Renaissance elements were lost in an 18th century reconstruction, but before then it displayed such magnificence that the Polish King waived it from the usual hospitality tax. This in spite of the fact, that Gutteter was one of several German burghers who could easily afford it.  Such wealthy merchants and tradesmen in Lviv provided the patronage that made such works architecturally possible. The upshot was a Rynok Square, totally recreated in a Renaissance fashion that still predominates today.

The Gutteter House at 18 Rynok Square

The Gutteter House at 18 Rynok Square in Lviv (Credit: Aeou)

A European & World Heritage
According to the Center for Urban History of East Central Europe, 33 of the 44 buildings in Rynok Square are done all or partly in Renaissance style (9 of 12 on the square’s southern side). This compared with 12 of 44 with Baroque stylistic elements and 5 of 44 featuring Neo-Classical traits. All of this adds up to the fact that Rynok Square is today the eastern most example of Italian Renaissance residential architecture in Europe. Little wonder that Lviv’s Old Town has attained UNESCO World Heritage Site status. The work of Italian Renaissance Masters, whether unknown or largely forgotten lives on in the most unlikely of places, western Ukraine.

 

Outliving Them All – Ukrainians & Lviv’s Dormition Church (Lviv: The Story of a City #16)

The majority of churches in Lviv’s Old Town seem to have one thing in common, namely that their wooden predecessors were reduced to ashes by fire. They were then rebuilt in stone, a material that could withstand both the ravages of fire and time. On multiple occasions, destruction by fire was followed by reconstruction. Later when the stone proved to be longer lasting, the churches would undergo restoration rather than rebuilding.  This was certainly the case for the Latin and Dominican Cathedrals. This was also true for the Dormition Church (Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary), but there was a notable difference. The stone one that survives today was also nearly lost to a fierce conflagration in 1627. The walls were so badly damaged that it was a minor miracle when the church escaped demolition.  The fact that the church still stands at present in the Old Town is a because of faith and devotion. The Dormition Church reflects the Ukrainian population it has served throughout the centuries in Lviv as a symbol of survival and perseverance.

Lviv's Dormition Church with the Korniakt Tower soaring above it

A view from above – Lviv’s Dormition Church with the Korniakt Tower soaring above it

The Old Believers – Ruthenians & Lviv During the Middle Ages
Many people believe that Lviv only really became a Ukrainian city following the Second World War. This was when the Soviets forced the majority Polish population out of the city. Moving them westward into lands that had been taken from Germany and would become Polonized. At the same time, tens of thousands of Ukrainians and to a much lesser extent Russians were moved into Lviv. By the late 1940’s Lviv had become a majority Ukrainian city. This was only new in a modern sense, as it actually hearkened back to the first century of the city’s history. Prior to conquest by the Poles in the 14th century, Lviv had been home to eastern Slavic peoples, ancestors of today’s Ukrainians, which historically were known as Ruthenians (the term was used right up through World War I). It was only after the conquest of the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia by the Kingdom of Poland that large numbers of Poles and Germans, Armenians and Jews settled in the city. Prior to the conquest, a predecessor of the Dormition Church, the Most Holy Mother of God Assumption Church existed in the city. It was the presence of this church, in various forms and architectural styles through the centuries. that gave the Ukrainians a lasting foothold in the city.

Despite their marginalization, the Ruthenians did have a certain area allotted to them within the city walls that were built around Lviv following the Polish conquest. Unfortunately this area was exceedingly small. It was known as the Russin quarter, situated between the eastern city walls and Rynok Square. The most famous thoroughfare in this area was Solianykiv Street (present day Ruska Street) on which the Dormition Church still stands today. This was where Ruthenian merchants traded in salt, the community’s main economic engine. Even with the salt trade, the Ruthenians were often in desperate financial straits. For example, to build the immediate predecessor of the Dormition Church that stands on the spot today, the Ruthenian community had to solicit donations from fellow Orthodox believers abroad. A patron came forward, the Moldavian Hospodar (Lord) Alexandru Lapusnenanu, who donated the money for construction. The church is still referred to by many as the Wallachian Church, as Moldavia was then known as Wallachia (in present day Romania). Lapusnenanu also extended an invitation to Orthodox Lvivans to send young church singers for training in Greek and Serbian chants in Moldavia. The church served the community for two decades before it succumbed to fire in 1571.
This led to another call for funding.

A ground level view of the Dormition Church in Lviv and the Korniakt Tower

A ground level view of the Dormition Church in Lviv and the Korniakt Tower

A Creation of the Timeless & Eternal
Patronage for yet another Dormition Church, much more elaborate than any of its predecessors, would come mostly from funds donated by the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood. It was the most powerful pro-Ruthenian organization in Lviv. The brotherhood was formed in the 15th century as an Orthodox religious association at the Dormition Church. At its height during the Renaissance, it operated with a wide degree of latitude, only answering to the Orthodox Patriarch in Constantinople. The Brotherhood oversaw the local bishops and clergy, while propagating a variety of capitalistic and charitable enterprises. It owned one of the first printing presses in Ukraine and operated schools, hospitals and even rest homes for the elderly. It provided the financial resources to build a new church that would become a hallmark of the city’s Renaissance architecture, a structure that could withstand trials by fire. The Dormition Church that was thus created and still stands today took forty years to craft out of white hewn stone. The time span of construction is irrelevant when compared to the finished product that turned out to be a timeless and eternal piece of architecture. This masterpiece is still in use and welcomes visitors today.

Interior of the Dormition Church

Interior of the Dormition Church (Credit: Wikipedia)

The design recalls traditional Ukrainian wooden churches with the structure being divided into three stories and three parts with three cupolas topped by lanterns. Reliefs frame high windows set into ultra-thick walls. Due to the height of the windows and thickness of these walls, it is believed that the church was also used as a fortification. The major donors were honored with their emblems decorating the central dome. The Chapel of the Three Baptists, adjacent to the church, is no less a feat of Renaissance style with its charismatic decorative façade. Soaring above the church and chapel is the Korniakt Tower. The entire ensemble of church, chapel and tower fuse the best of Ukrainian sacral architecture with the gloriously splendid style that exemplifies the western European Renaissance. From an architectural standpoint this is where Eastern and Western Europe merge stylistically to create an architectural feat for the ages. The Dormition Church is the cornerstone of this creation. A monument to faith that also symbolizes the Ukrainian people’s enduring presence in Lviv.

At the entrance to the Dormition Church

Hand in hand – at the entrance to the Dormition Church (Credit: Wikipedia)

Kindred Spirits – A People, A Church, A City
Today, Lviv is known as “the most Ukrainian city in the Ukraine.” For seven centuries, the city was anything but that. The power of persistence, the varying fortunes of history and an abiding faith allowed Ukrainians to overcome innumerable obstacles, whether political, economic or environmental, to make the city truly their own. The greatest symbol of their ability to rise from the ashes, to recreate themselves and their public space stands at 7 Ruska Street. The Dormition Church is the symbolic heart and soul of the Ukrainian people’s relationship with Lviv.

A Towering Presence: Konstanty Korniakt’s Achievement (Lviv: The Story of a City In Ukraine #4)

It seems that every great Eastern European city has a certain architectural landmark associated with it. There is Berlin and the Brandenburg Gate, Krakow with Wawel Castle, Prague’s Charles Bridge and Budapest’s with the shimmering Hungarian Parliament. The same can be said for Lviv, the only problem is there are multiple landmarks to choose from, both notable and noticeable. These include the grandiose Opera House, a handful of spectacular churches and the Austro-Hungarian era train station. These buildings all leave a lasting impression, but there is one structure that literally towers above the rest. This is the Korniakt Tower attached to the northern façade of the Dormition (or Assumption) Church. At 66 meters it is the tallest building in the Lviv’s Old Town area. The tower can take hold of wandering eyes, drawing them upward, skyward towards its apex, a cupola and four cornered obelisk. The tower brings together elements of the two most memorable architectural styles of the Old Town, Renaissance and Baroque.

The Korniakt Tower and Dormition Church in Lviv

The Korniakt Tower and Dormition Church in Lviv (Credit: Jan Melich)

The Wealth of Migrations – Lviv as an Economic Hub
The Korniakt Tower has stood the test of time, not only stylistically, but also physically. Though it suffered badly following a late 18th century fire, having to undergo substantial restoration, the tower has survived every trial of its structural integrity, whether from below (earthquakes), above (as a target for lightning strikes) or at ground level (numerous fires). The tower’s legacy has been lasting. That must have been what the man who commissioned it had in mind. Rightfully the tower goes by his name, a name that uniquely does not derive from any of the major ethnic groups that have dominated Lviv’s history. Konstanty Korniakt was neither a Pole, Ukrainian or Jewish and certainly not Russian or German, he was born and bred from an entirely different stock, Greek. Yet it was not so much Korniakt’s ethnicity, but the social class from which he came, the merchants, left a lasting mark on Lviv’s history.

Merchants such as Korniakt were creators of the wealth that made Lviv one of the great medieval European trading centers. There was a long tradition of mercantilism in Lviv hundreds of years before Korniakt’s arrival. Merchants created the wealth that made the city powerful, but they could not have done so without two key laws. The first was the Magdeburg rights granted to the city by a Polish king. These were special privileges that allowed urban communities to regulate trade to the benefit of local merchants. The Magdeburg rights fed into a second legal instrument, the so called “law of storage.” This banal sounding phrase was actually critical to making Lviv an economic powerhouse.  It required all merchants traveling the trade routes through Lviv to be quartered in the city for two weeks. They then had to offer their goods for sale to the city’s merchants. Having first choice on these goods placed Lviv’s trading place at a considerable advantage. Because of these privileges Lviv became a trading hub for among other things furs, wine, honey and wax. The merchants made fortunes. This in turn attracted traders from a wider geographical area to the city. Armenians, Germans and Greeks made Lviv their home.

Konstanty Korniakt - a man of great wealth and even greater devotion

Konstanty Korniakt – a man of great wealth and even greater devotion

The Outsider On The Inside – A Man of Wealth and Devotion
Konstanty Korniakt was born far away from western Ukraine (what was then the eastern reaches of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) on the island of Crete, he eventually made his way to Wallachia, in what is now present day Romania. There he collected customs duties and royal tolls for the Moldavian Hospodar (Lord) Alexandru Lapusneanu. Lapusneanu was the founder of the first Dormition Church in Lviv, which would succumb to fire. In 1560 Korniakt moved to Lviv where he boosted his already substantial wealth through involvement with international trade. He was the city’s wealthiest man at the time, but not the most trusted one. Local officials eyed Korniakt with suspicion and attempted to exclude him from city affairs. Because of his wealth Korniakt enjoyed the favor of the Polish king, Sigismund II Augustus, who also borrowed money from him. The upshot of this relationship resulted in Korniakt being given an official title of nobility, increasing his power and prestige. Befitting his outsider status, in a city ruled by officials of the Roman Catholic faith, Korniakt was instead an ardent follower of the Orthodox religion. He was a stanch supporter of the rights of the Ruthenian Catholic community. Korniakt’s devotion led him to support the construction of a great architectural wonder.

The same year that Korniakt received his title of nobility, a terribly destructive fire torched the Jewish section of the town and the first version of the Dormition Church along with it. As would happen so many times in Lviv’s ill-fated history with fires, rebuilding on the site began almost immediately. In 1572 construction started on the tower (also referred to as a belfry). About the same time, work on a magnificent palace for Korniakt on Rynok Square also commenced. The tower was designed and built by Italian masters Pietro Barbone and Paolo Romanus. Today visitors rightfully marvel at its beauty without realizing that the tower was built as much for protection as for spiritual devotion. In wartime it would act as a strongpoint when the city was under siege. The initial version of the tower built entirely in Renaissance style took six years to complete. It had three stories and a tent shaped roof that also consisted of three stages. It was grievously damaged in the Tatar siege of Lviv in 1695. This led to a restoration where Baroque elements such as a helmet and four pyramids surrounding a lantern now crowned the top of the tower. With these additions Baroque and Renaissance were now connected in a symbiotic structural continuity. Later the tower was attached to a second version of the Dormition Church, completing a harmonious architectural ensemble. A Renaissance masterpiece in its own right, especially its elaborately covered façade, unfortunately the Church often gets overlooked – as do other buildings in the immediate area – due to the towering presence of the Korniakt Tower.

The Korniakt Tower

Above all others – The Korniakt Tower soars above its surroundings (Credit: Богдан Репетило)

Living Proof – Korniakt’s Afterlife
It is interesting to consider the legacy of Konstanty Korniakt. For all of his fabulous wealth, scarcely anyone would remember him today if not for the tower that bears his name. He used some of his wealth to create, an object of reverence, a towering symbol not of money, but of devotion. The Korniakt name is spoken thousands of time daily by Lvivians and visitors alike. This is the only way anyone remember this man or his money. No one cares that he was once the richest man in Lviv, because there was and always will be another richest man in Lviv. Wealth and power are ephemeral, but great art and architecture are timeless, the one true thing that can defeat time and live on forever. The old cliché states that when it comes to money, you can’t take it with you. That is true. Yet a man can leave something behind. The Korniakt Tower is living proof.