In Defiance of Fate (Part One) -The Republic of One Day: Carpatho-Ukraine

On March 15, 1939, the sun rose on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in the land known as Subcarpathia. A new day was about to dawn both literally and figuratively. For the eight hundred thousand-odd people living in Subcarpathia at the time, it would be their last day ever as part of Czechoslovakia. The area was about to experience an identity crisis of historic proportions. This remote land, a forgotten backwater, began the day as an autonomous region of Czechoslovakia. At lunchtime it was a newly independent nation, known as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine. By the next morning it was part of Hungary. Independence was fleeting, it did not even last the night. In just twenty-four hours, the population had been part of three separate nations. If given a choice, the majority of the populace would have preferred independence, but history was not on their side. The story of this land and its people’s geo-political situation over the past century is filled with fits and starts, false hopes and lost dreams. Independence turned out to be a dead end, but in the process, due more too historical accident rather than design, by the end of the 20th century, the region had received the next best thing, virtual autonomy. Through it all, in defiance of fate, the majority Rusyn population of the area retained a distinct identity.

Carpatho-Ukraine in March 1939

Carpatho-Ukraine in March 1939

Playground of the Powers: Great & Small
Carpatho-Ukraine is a beautiful, bucolic land. It contains the foothills and smaller mountains of the Carpathian range. The Carpathians are well known in Europe, but not the small slice that is part of Ukraine. The majority of the Carpathians lie further south in Romania, famous as part of Transylvania. This is a forgotten land, relatively unknown, with a modern history that is complex and confusing. Ukraine, roughly translated means borderland, and Carpatho-Ukraine, is the ultimate borderland in a border country. A quintessential frontier, it has been an appendage of empires and nation-states from time immemorial. In the last one hundred years it has been the playground of a withering array of political entities. These have included the Austro—Hungarian Empire, the Hungarian Red (Communist) Republic, Romania, the West Ukrainian People’s Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the Soviet Union and the Ukraine. It has been conquered and occupied, as well as autonomous and independent. Presently it is a province of Ukraine, but has a coat of arms and flag that is almost an exact replica of the one that was used when it declared independence.

The idea of an independent republic that could not even last a day seems to be an historical absurdity. Was Carpatho-Ukraine unworthy of nationhood? Was this an attempt to take advantage of a specific geo-political situation? This slice of the sub-Carpathians failed as an independent nation in 1939 because it was crushed by powerful geo-political entities carving up Europe to suit their own interests. Paradoxically it was only because of power politics that Carpatho-Ukraine was able to gain its independence, if only for one day.

Occupying force - a Hungarian soldier in Khust  (Credit:

Occupying force – a Hungarian soldier in Khust (Credit:

History As Opportunism: The Disintegration of Czechoslovakia
To understand, the situation Carpatho-Ukraine found itself in, one must understand what was happening to Czechoslovakia, the nation-state it was part of from 1919 to 1939. Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany first began to dismember Czechoslovakia by occupying the Sudetenland to “protect” the German population from the Czechs. Hitler and his henchmen were not the kind of geo-political players who could ever be appeased. It was not long before the Nazis wanted all of Bohemia and Moravia, the traditional homeland of the Czechs. In addition, Hitler had allowed Hungary to take the southern part of Slovakia, with its large Hungarian population. Meanwhile the rest of Slovakia had declared autonomy. Because of this, Czechoslovakia was being divided or perhaps more to the point, hyphenated. Its name was actually changed to Czecho-Slovakia, reflecting the virtual separation of Slovakia from the Czech portion of the state. Forgotten in the unfolding of this historical tragedy was a third, bit player.

The far eastern quarter of Czechoslovakia was known as Trans-Carpathia. It was neither Czech nor Slovak. Neither was it Hungarian, even though it had been part of the Hungarian portion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to World War I. It contained a smattering of Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians and Jews, but two-thirds of the population was Rusyn or Ruthenian, a people who were akin to the larger Eastern Slav population of Ukraine. Eventually, perhaps inevitably they would come to be called Ukrainians and the land they inhabited as the Carpatho-Ukraine. Following World War I Ukraine as a political entity had failed. Thus, Carpatho-Ukraine was attached to Czechoslovakia in 1919. Fast forward two decades, with Czechoslovakia disintegrating, Carpatho-Ukraine declared autonomy on October 11, 1939. Five months later, on March 14th, as the Germans stormed into Bohemia and Moravia, and Slovakia about to become an independent nation, a Carpatho-Ukrainian parliament convened in the city of Khust. There they voted to become an independent republic.

Panorama of Khust, Ukraine - the capital of the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine (Credit: Власна робота)

Panorama of Khust, Ukraine – the capital of the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine (Credit: Власна робота)

No Man’s Land – Oppressors and the Oppressed
Within a few hours of this declaration the leaders of Carpatho-Ukraine fled into exile. The reason, Hungarian troops were already crossing the border. By the evening of March 15th a Hungarian force the size of two army divisions had invaded Carpatho-Ukraine. The new republic’s defense force, known as the Carpathian Sich, consisted of only 5,000 troops. By the next morning, Carpatho-Ukraine ceased to exist. It was now part of Hungary, despite the fact that less than ten percent of its population was ethnically Hungarian. Why did the Hungarians want this region? It allowed them a strategic wedge between Romania and Czechoslovakia (which ironically now ceased to exist). These states had dismembered “Historic” Hungary in the aftermath of World War I. Now the Hungarians were reconstituting their former domains. Amidst this geo-political morass were the Carpatho-Ukrainians. Their incipient state vanished into oblivion, their autonomy was gone. Nonetheless, a historic seed had been planted.

The Hungarians would come to regret their land grab. Although the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine lasted less than a day, Hungarian rule over the area was also fleeting. Only five years later, in 1944, the Soviet Army came roaring out of the east. Many of the Hungarians and virtually all Germans in the area were either deported to the Gulag or murdered. Carpatho-Ukraine now became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic which was part of the Soviet Union. Thus, Carpatho-Ukraine became a constituent of a constituent republic. Interestingly, the idea of a Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine did not end on that fateful Wednesday of March 15th, 1939. It has had an intriguing after life, one that will be discussed in a coming blog post.



Piliszentkerszt – Last Bastion of the Slovaks of Hungary

Deep in the Pilis Hills of northern Hungary stands the village of Piliszentkerszt (The Holy Cross of Pilis). Its natural setting attracts hikers who seek refuge in the dense oak and beech forests. The natural beauty and resources of Piliszentkerszt has also attracted many foreigners to the area, including some that are not only tourists. On multiple occasions over the past 800 years this small village became a haven to foreigners who immigrated to the area. Many of them found the climate and natural beauty to be extremely hospitable, thus they decided to stay. Even today, this sheltered environment is home to one of the few villages in Hungary with a non-Magyar ethnic majority. This goes against the grain of 20th century European history. With the fall of empires, multi-ethnic states were turned into smaller, highly homogenous nations. Hungary was part of this movement. Only areas along borders or those hidden in relative isolation were able to buck this historical trend. Piliszentkerszt was one of these places.

Aerial view of the ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of Piliszenkerszt (Credit: Civertan)

Aerial view of the ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of Piliszenkerszt (Credit: Civertan)

By Invitation Only – The Creation of Piliszentkerszt
The foreigners that first permanently settled Piliszentkerszt came by way of invitation. The first immigrants to arrive were monks brought to Hungary by the French wife of King Bela III (1172 – 1196). A Benedictine Abbey was established for them in the year 1184. Soon a village sprang up around it.  The abbey and its immediate area may have seemed like a safe haven, but during the early Middle Ages, those who ruled the land shared one thing in common with the average person, the precariousness of life. Being a foreigner could make life even more perilous.

One of only two assassinations of queens in Hungarian history occurred near Piliszentkerszt. The German wife of King Andrew II (1205 – 1235), Gertrude of Merania, was despised by the indigenous nobility because of her overt favoritism toward fellow Germans. Among Gertrude’s many affronts to the native nobility, she gifted one-third of Hungarian land to her fellow Germans. The hatred this action engendered led the nobles to conspire against her. In the autumn of 1213 during a hunting trip in the Pilis, she was murdered by nobles. They then had her body torn to pieces. What remained was interred at the nearby abbey in a Gothic tomb. During the latter half of the 20th century an excavation of Gertrude’s Gothic tomb took place. This provided confirmation of her fate.

Piliszentkerst’s isolation could not protect it from either immigration or by the 16th century, invasion by foreigners into the Carpathian Basin. Just as foreigners had constructed the abbey and village, so too did another group of outsiders bring about its destruction. In 1526, the Ottoman Turks under the banner of Islam, destroyed both the abbey and village. The ruins left behind are still visible today and can be visited. Following the expulsion of the Turks, the settlement was a non-existent, lifeless ruin.

Bilingual signage greet visitors to the village today

Bilingual signage greet visitors to the village today

A Slovak Haven – Reconstructing Piliszentkerszt
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that yet another group of foreigners would arrive on the scene. In 1747, a group of Slovak migrants arrived to rebuild the village. The ruling Habsburgs who had thrown the Turks out of Hungary in the late 17th century, brought in groups of migrants, namely ethnic Germans and Slovaks to help repopulate a Hungarian Kingdom that had been denuded of its people by a century and a half of warfare. The Slovak presence in Piliszentkerst would act as a magnet, attracting Slovaks from all over Hungary. The village was soon reconstructed, becoming a new home for another group of ethnic and linguistic outsiders.

Unlike those who came before them, the Slovaks had staying power. Despite over two and a half centuries of fraught relations between Hungarians and Slovaks, the population of Piliszentkerszt resisted the forces of Magyarization and cultural assimilation. Even the 20th century draw of a newly born Czechoslovak nation to the north was not enough to uproot them. Perhaps it was the isolation of the community that allowed it to defy history. While the nation of Hungary became over ninety percent ethnically Hungarian, Piliszentkereszt remained the only settlement in Hungary where Slovaks made up the majority. Even today that is true, though they are a very slim majority at 54%. The Slovak name for the village, Mlynky can be seen on bilingual signs. Signage in the shops is also written in both the Slovak and Hungarian languages. Here stands an island of Slovak settlement thriving amid a sea of Hungarians.

Piliszentkerszt - Isolated from change but for how long

Piliszentkerszt – Isolated from change but for how long

Out With the Old – The Challenge of Modernity
A new threat to the Slovaks of Piliszentkerst is now presenting itself. The ever progressing forces of modernity, with greater opportunities to travel and communicate with the larger world may end the village’s isolation. Slowly a younger generation of Slovaks in Piliszentkerszt has been losing the language skills and cultural ties that have so tightly bound the community together. A legacy of over eight centuries of foreign settlement is now threatened, not by the dominant ethnic culture, but instead by the transformative effects of technology and globalization. What will the future hold for Piliszentkerszt? Is it destined to become like the rest of Hungary, assimilated into homogeneity? If so, it will not be the first time that foreigners have been swept from the area. Foreigners may have a long history in this village, but challenges from the modern world may finally prove too much to overcome.