While visiting Schloss Esterhazy (Esterhazy Palace) in Eisenstadt, Austria I spoke with an intelligent and energetic tour guide by the name of Pia. I asked her about tourism in this, the easternmost province of Austria known as Burgenland. The smile fell from her face as she gave a sigh of resignation. She said that the state authorities were working on getting more tourists to the area, but Vienna and the mountainous regions of the country dominated Austrian tourism. Anyone who has ever spent a fair amount of time in the splendid historic center of Vienna or in the Austrian Alps knows why these places are so popular. They have all the elements of popular travel: overwhelming charm, rich culture and spectacular natural beauty second to none. How could the Burgenland, with its rolling hills and fertile fields, massive wind farms and tiny towns compete with the rest of Austria in the tourist trade?
A Land Apart – German West Hungary
The Burgenland is not going to be the first, second or third choice for very many tourists, but it certainly has much to recommend it. There is an understated, pastoral beauty to the countryside. A quaint refinement pervades the small towns scattered across the land. Vineyards that produce renowned wines cover many of the hillsides. A unique history much different from the rest of Austria adds an element of diversity. Burgenland is not a place for superficial tourism. There is no window shopping tourist attractions, no sparkling cities filled with haute couture fashion or world famous attractions. Instead it is for those who seek an acquired taste and subtle beauty. Burgenland is the remotest and least visited place in Austria, it also the least populated and smallest state. It is a land that borders more nations (Hungary, Slovenia & Slovakia) than fellow Austrian states (Styria & Lower Austria). A slender piece of territory much longer than wider, it stretches over 150 kilometers from north to south, but in some places is little more than 10 kilometers from east to west. There is nowhere else like it in Austria, a place where one can get left alone. In short, the Burgenland is a region apart from the rest of Austria. This separateness is informed by deep historical connections with its eastern neighbor Hungary.
The state known today as the Burgenland did not acquire that name or its current borders until the early 1920’s, when it became a constituent part of the newly formed Republic of Austria. Though Germans were the largest ethnic group for centuries on end, the region was actually part of Hungary for much of this time. It was usually referred to by the name Deutsch-Westungarn which means German West Hungary. Starting in the mid-11th century, the region was part of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. For the next several centuries it was the western border zone of the Kingdom. The Habsburgs first gained control of this land in the mid-14th century, but two hundred years later handed it back to the Hungarians. During this time, the Hungarian population (Magyars) mainly consisted of border guards protecting the Kingdom’s western flank. Waves of German settlement did little to wrest it from control of the dominant Hungarian aristocracy. The local nobility was led by the powerful House of Esterhazy, one of Europe’s most powerful noble families.
Between Austrians, Hungarians & Croatians – Voting, Fighting & Peacemaking
The Esterhazy’s were strongly pro-Catholic. To their great advantage they were closely allied with the Habsburgs. Because of this, they were able to acquire massive landholdings throughout the region. The ruling influence in the region up through the early 20th century was Hungarian in ethnicity, making it atypical from the rest of Austria. It was never part of the Holy Roman Empire and when the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary was created in 1867, it fell under the Hungarian ruled part of the monarchy know as Transleithania (east of the River Leitha). Interestingly enough, though Hungarians made up the ruling class, they were not the second largest ethnic group (behind Germans) in the region. They were outnumbered by Croatians who moved into the area during the mid-16th century after western Slavonia (part of present day eastern Croatia) was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. The most noticeable aspect of the Croatian presence left in Burgenland today are bilingual signs noting both the German and Croatian names of the villages.
Burgenland was handed to Austria in the chaotic years that followed the end of World War One. This was one of the more quixotic decisions of the Paris Peace Conference. Austria was the only nation that had been on the losing side in the war to gain territory afterwards. Burgenland was not given up without a fight by the Hungarians. Though they were outnumbered by ethnic Germans eight to one, a small, but fanatical band of Hungarian militiamen attempted an armed insurrection. Their efforts went for naught. Hungarian diplomats rather than armed men did a bit better. By agreeing to disband the militia, they were able to get a plebiscite vote held. Citizens of the city of Sopron, which had been the capital of the region and its only major city, voted in 1921 on whether they wanted to be part of Austria or Hungary. Though at the time half the inhabitants were ethnically German, two-thirds voted in favor of staying in Hungary, thus Sopron (German: Odenburg) would not become part of Austria. A new capital for the new province of Burgenland had to be selected. Eisenstadt soon became the economic, political and cultural hub for the region as it still is today.
Schloss Esterhazy & The Haydnsaal – Burgenland’s Magnificence
Eisenstadt, is a reflection of Burgenland, neat and clean, with a bit of splendor represented most prominently by the Baroque luxury of the radiant Schloss Esterhazy glowing in the heart of the city. It was at the palace’s Haydnsaal concert hall that the famed composer Joseph Haydn performed some of his most famous works. It was also at the palace where he composed hundreds of musical pieces under the patronage of the Esterhazy’s. The palace acted as a preferred residence, especially in the winter, for the family. Today it is one of Burgenland’s most visited tourist attractions, but by no means the only one. The state of Burgenland offers up a largely forgotten Austria, likely to go unseen by most tourists. Perhaps that is the most compelling reason to visit.